international law

Why Humanitarian Aid in Darfur is not a Practice of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’

Upphovsperson: Okeke, Jide
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation | Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2011
Ämnesord: Sudan, Darfur, conflicts, Civil war, Humanitarian assistance, Emergency relief, Foreign intervention, Government policy, international law, Foreign aid, Aid evaluation, Political science, Statsvetenskap
The Discussion Paper provides a compelling critique of the ‘new humanitarianism, ’particularly the ways in which leading donor states seek to incorporate humanitarian assistance and protection into the toolbox of political intervention in other countries. Drawing upon the history of humanitarianism and its origins in an ethos of neutrality, impartiality and non-violence, the author shows how since the end of the Cold War, and increasingly since 9/11, the ‘new’ form of internationational humanitarianism has become deeply politicised and has taken on human rights, strategic-security, liberal and developmental agendas as defined by donor states. The paper frames the critique of linking R2P to humanitarian protection values in the context of the new humanitarianism and the pursuit of the foreign policies of hegemonic states. It therefore provides a critical perspective on the politics of humanitarian aid in Darfur, and opens up a new basis for an alternative discourse on international humanitarian intervention and its connection with the politics of global powers in African conflict arenas. This paper is an important resource for scholars, civil society activists and policy practitioners with a keen interest in international humanitarian aid, international humanitarian law, conflict, peace and security in Africa.

The succession of Faure Gnassingbe to the Togolese presidency : an international law perspective

Upphovsperson: Ebeku, Kaniye S. A.
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2005
Ämnesord: Presidency, Heads of state, inheritance, elections, democracy, constitutions, international law, Togo, Political science, Statsvetenskap
The African renaissance - the renewal of the continent - effectively started in the last decade of the second millennium. A critical element is the increasing and widespread democratic awakening in all parts of Africa since the early 1990s as evidenced by the number of multi-party elections. Demonstrating their commitment to democracy, African leaders, under the auspices of regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU), have increasingly made a number of treaties, declarations and other political commitments in the field of democracy and good governance (including the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the Declaration on Africa’s Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government). Significantly, the recent politico-constitutional crisis in Togo, occasioned by the sudden death of President Gnassingbe Eyadema in early February 2005, after he had ruled the country with an iron-fist for 38 years, and the interim succession of his son, Faure Gnassingbe, to the presidency, raised issues of democracy and good governance and provided an opportunity for African countries to test the effectiveness of the various democracy-related instruments. Adopting a legal-jurisprudential perspective, the author skillfully examines the contradictions between the regional-international legal instruments that permit interference in the internal affairs of a Member State of ECOWAS and AU and the principles of international law that provide for sovereign equality of States and non-interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign State. Undoubtedly, this work will interest scholars, students and researchers in international law, international politics and international relations as well as general readers, especially those interested in African affairs. CONTENT Introduction Politico-Constitutional Antecedents of the Recent Developments Regional Instruments on Democratic Principles in Africa Some Basic Principles of International Law: In a Nutshell Faure’s Succession: Validity of the Removal of Fambare Ouattara Natchaba from Office Faure’s Succession and Legality of Constitutional Amendment Faure’s Succession and the Doctrine of State Necessity Faure’s Succession and Regional Instruments on Democracy and Good Governance Concluding Remarks References