Social inequality

Neighbours and family first : donors should consider the effects of political favouritism in Africa

Upphovsperson: Isaksson, Ann-Sofie
Utgivare: Uppsala
År: 2015
Ämnesord: Africa South of Sahara, democracy, Ethnicity, Ethnic groups, Foreign aid, Social inequality, Ethnic favouritism, Regional favouritism
In many African countries it is a known fact that a person belonging to the same ethnic group as the president is less likely to be treated unfairly by the government. The same is valid for people living in the president’s home region, regardless of their ethnic affiliation. Ethnic and regional favouritism are two distinct but parallel problems. This Policy Note, drawn from data involving 20 000 citizens in 15 African countries, explore the scope of favouritism and its implications for citizens and democratic attitudes.

Inequality and Identity : Causes of War?

Upphovsperson: Holmqvist, Göran
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration |
År: 2012
Ämnesord: Africa, Civil war, conflicts, Social inequality, cultural identity, Intergroup relations, Social control, Theory, comparative analysis, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
In this paper, four theories on the causes of civil war are reviewed. One theory, associated with Paul Collier, emphasises feasibility over factors related to grievance. A second theory, espoused by Frances Stewart, focuses on the role of horizontal inequalities. The third theory, identified with William Zartman, highlights the different roles “need, creed and greed” factors play in various phases of a conflict. And the fourth theory, associated with the World Bank /World Development Report 2011, points out “commitment” problems leading to institutional failures as a crucial factor. Each of the theories leads to quite different policy conclusions. Their strengths and weaknesses, and their claimed empirical support, are discussed.In addition, some of the mechanisms underpinning the theories are highlighted on the basis of empirical data. In particular, the central role of horizontal inequalities between social groups is discussed.

African Migration, Global Inequalities, and Human Rights : Connecting the Dots

Upphovsperson: Minter, William
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2011
Ämnesord: Migrations, Migrants, Social inequality, Human rights, Economic and social development, case studies, Africa, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
Migration from and within Africa, just like migration elsewhere in the world, often generates anti-immigrant sentiment and ignites heated public debate about the migration policies of the destination countries. These countries include South Africa as well as others outside the continent. The countries of origin are also keen to minimize losses through “brain drain” and to capture resources such as remittances. Increasingly, international organizations and human rights advocates have stressed the need to protect the interests of migrants themselves. However, while the UNDP’s 2009 Human Development Report talks of “win-win-win” solutions, in practice it is the perceived interests of destination countries that enjoy the greatest attention, while the rights of migrants themselves are afforded the least. Yet migration is not just an issue in itself: it also points to structural inequalities between countries and regions. Managing migration and protecting migrants is too limited an agenda. Activists and policymakers must also address these inequalities directly to ensure that people can pursue their fundamental human rights whether they move or stay. It is not enough to measure development only in terms of progress at the national level: development must also be measured in terms of reductions in the gross levels of inequality that now determine differential rights on the basis of accident of birth.

Migrant remittances, social inequality and restrictive immigration regimes

Upphovsperson: Åkesson, Lisa
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2011
Ämnesord: Migrants, Remittances, Immigration, Social inequality, Cape Verde, Business and economics, Ekonomi
The case of Cape Verde shows that the relationship between remittances and inequality in migrant-sending countries depends on a number of factors. The situation is thus more complicatedthan the dominant pessimistic view of the 1970s and 1980s or today’s “development optimism” discourse. Among the factors are changes over time in the selectivity of migrants, variations in family organization and differences in impact between permanent and return migration. A policy debate about remittances and inequality needs to include immigration regimes. Migrant-sending countries can reduce the risk that remittances will exacerbate socioeconomicinequality by facilitating the use of remittances for projects that benefit local communities. Destination countries can open up possibilities for legal labour migration, especiallyfor those who are not highly educated, in order to promote, among other things, a more equal distribution of remittances.

Land struggles & social differentiation in Southern Mozambique

Upphovsperson: Hermele, Kenneth
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 1988
Ämnesord: Chokwe, Mocambique, Southern Africa, Land tenure, State farms, Land reform, Social inequality, Colonialism, History, Economic history, Social history, Post-war, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
This essay tells the story of an important area in the fertile Limpopo valley in southern Mozambique. It documents for the first time the rise and the fall of a major Portuguese settlement venture in Africa, and it pursues the story through the state farm epoch. In 1983, the agricultural development strategy changed, and land begun to be distributed to the peasants. This essay terminates by describing this latest phase, highlighting the strong differentiating effects and the class formation that is taking place in the area.