Caught between state censorship and self-censorship . Prosecution and intimidation of media workers in Myanmar

Utgivare: Amnesty International
År: 2015
Ämnesord: Burma, Journalister, Media, Censur, Yttrandefrihet, Mänskliga rättigheter, censorship, Journalism
I takt med att de nationella valen, som ska hållas i november 2015, närmar sig ökar de burmesiska myndigheternas tillslag för att tysta kritiska röster. Oberoende redaktioner utsätts för hot och journalister trakasseras och fängslas, säger Amnesty International i sin rapport.

Rapporten visar att myndigheterna, trots allt tal om att Burma sedan 2011 har öppnat sig för omvärlden, använder samma gamla beprövade metoder för att skrämma medierna och inskränka yttrandefriheten.
Idag sitter minst tio journalister i fängelse, samtliga har fängslats de senaste tolv månaderna och samtliga är samvetsfångar.

The political, economic and social reforms announced by President Thein Sein in March 2011 have transformed the climate for media workers in Myanmar.The lifting of pre-publication censorship, the release of imprisoned journalists and greater space for freedom of expression have seen the development of an increasingly vibrant and diverse media.
However, despite these reforms, journalists and other media workers in Myanmar have faced increasing restrictions as they try to carry out their work. In particular, those deemed critical of the government and the Myanmar Army, or who report on subjects which the government or army consider sensitive, can face intimidation, harassment, imprisonment and even death.

During 2014, at least 11 media workers were imprisoned in connection with their peaceful journalistic activities, while others reported direct threats, surveillance, restrictions on access to certain areas of the country, and the use of defamation lawsuits to stifle critical or independent reporting.
In October 2014, one journalist was killed by soldiers while held in military custody, in an egregious example of the risks media workers continue to face.

Repressive state and resurgent media under Nigeris's military dictatorship, 1988-98

Upphovsperson: Olukotun, Ayo
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2004
Ämnesord: Nigeria, media, Press, military government, censorship, political opposition, Democratization
This study documents a crucial dimension of the resistance of Nigerian civil society to a repressive and monumentally corrupt military state in the late 1980s and 1990s in Nigeria. Employing a neo-Gramscian theoretical framework, the study relates how a section of the media defied censorship laws, outright bans, incarceration and the assassination of opposition figures, to prosecute the struggle for democracy. It captures the tensions and contradictions between a pliant section of the media, which sought to legitimise the state and a critical section of the same media, which in alliance with radical civil society, invented rebellious outlets to carry on the struggle against dictatorship.The study seeks to make fresh departures by documenting not only the role of the national media in the throes of democratic struggle, but that of the international media whose role was influential in the years studied.Finally the report offers empirical proof of the mechanisms by which a vibrant civil society can curb the ravages of a predatory state in an African country.