Climate change

Current Status of Agriculture and Future Challenges in Sudan

Upphovsperson: Mahgoub, Farida
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources | Uppsala, Sweden
År: 2014
Ämnesord: Sudan, Agricultural projects, Water resources, Water management, Irrigation, Agricultural development, Food security, Climate change
Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%–80 % of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of rawmaterials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifyingthe economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector inrelation to food security. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected sincethe advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and ahuge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure,especially internally displaced persons and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.

Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile : Politics, population increase and climate change

Upphovsperson: Oestigaard, Terje
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources | Uppsala, Sweden
År: 2012
Ämnesord: River basins, Shared water resources, Water shortage, Food security, Population growth, Climate change, Geopolitics, International agreements, Regional developmen, Nile river, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflicts in Southern Africa

Upphovspersoner: Themnér, Anders | Swain, Ashok | Bali Swain, Ranjula | Krampe, Florian
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation | Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet | Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet | Pretoria ; Uppsala : Global Crisis Solutions ; Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling
År: 2011
Ämnesord: Climate change, Civil war, conflicts, Shared water resources, Environmental management, Economic implications, Southern Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambezi River, Political science, Statsvetenskap
This study aims to identify regions in the Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa that are prone to risk of violent conflicts (collective violence, popular unrest) induced by climatic changes/variability. The Zambezi River is 575 kilometres long and the basin covers eight countries: Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, Botswana, Mozambique and Namibia. Besides the ecological impact, the study argues that socio-economic and political problems are disproportionately multiplied by climate change/variability. Climate change/variability amplifies stresses on the socio-political fabric because it affects the governance of resources, and hence, is linked to the weakened mitigation and adaptation capacity of societies, that are already facing economic challenges (rising food prices, etc.). Society becomes highly vulnerable to climate induced conflicts when it suffers from poor central leadership, weak institutions and polarized social identities. Taking all these factors into consideration, this study identifies Bulawayo/Matableleland-North in Zimbabwe and the Zambezia Province in Mozambique as the most likely regions to experience climate induced conflicts in the near future. The reasons for arriving at this conclusion are: a) Climate change/variability will have a significant impact on these two regions; due to increasing water scarcity in Bulawayo/Matabeleland-North; and intensified flooding, sea-level rise, and costal erosion in the Zambezia Province. b) Due to climate change/variability, agricultural production in these two regions will become highly volatile, leading to severe food insecurity. c) Both regions are suffering from low quality political governance, having unscrupulous elites, weak institutions, and polarized social identities.

Water and climate change in Africa – from causes to consequences

Upphovsperson: Oestigaard, Terje
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2011
Ämnesord: Climate change, Environmental effects, Shared water resources, Food resources, Development aid, Nile river, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
There is a need to extend the climate change discourse. This should not be by paying less attention to the causes, which are now well known, but by stressing more the consequences, which have been largely neglected in political discourses, especially changes in water systems. This is also an issue of how global society should react to the uncertainties climate change represent for Africa and its development. Globally, the current political agenda focuses mainly on mitigation of carbon emissions, a consideration that also structures international aid policies, and less on adaptation and how to develop countries and societies when hydrology and environment changes. Thus, a water perspective may add important insights and future policy guidelines of particular relevance to Africa’s development.

Natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa : assets and vulnerabilities

Upphovsperson: Holmberg, Johan
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2008
Ämnesord: natural resources, Climate change, Environmental effects, Agricultural sector, Sustainable development, Development strategy, Policy making, Africa South of Sahara, Sweden, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
Africa is rich in oil and mineral resources, but has severe shortages of water and suffers from an accelerating pressure on its arable land and forests. Climate change is expected to cause major problems for African populations with increase of water stress and severely compromised agricultural production. Local food supplies will be negatively affected and, towards the end of the 21st century, sea-level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas. The report argues that the poorest countries are most vulnerable to climate change and that Africa is particularly exposed. Sweden should consider full integration of climate change adaptation strategies in its development cooperation with African partners. This will likely mean that some existing priorities will be further accentuated, such as needs to provide water and sanitation services to the poor, raising agricultural productivity, and curbing deforestation.