Feeding the Horse: Unofficial Economic Activities within the Police Force in the DR Congo

Upphovspersoner: Eriksson Baaz, Maria | Olsson, Ola
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation |
År: 2011
Based on original interview material, this article addresses the organization of unofficial economic activities within the Congolese (Democratic Republic of the Congo) police force. In contrast to dominant assumptions in security sector reform discourses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in which property violations tend to be portrayed as disorganized, ad-hoc activities, following from irregular and insufficient salaries, the article shows how property violations are highly organized with large portions flowing upward in the chain of command. However, the article also argues for the need to go beyond one-dimensional notions of “unrestrained predation” and simplistic dichotomies between civilians (victims) and police/military (predators). Furthermore, it argues for a more contextual analysis in which the core security sector institutions are situated more firmly in the political and economic context in which they operate

Inequality and Identity : Causes of War?

Upphovsperson: Holmqvist, Göran
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration |
År: 2012
Ämnesord: Africa, Civil war, conflicts, Social inequality, cultural identity, Intergroup relations, Social control, Theory, comparative analysis, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
In this paper, four theories on the causes of civil war are reviewed. One theory, associated with Paul Collier, emphasises feasibility over factors related to grievance. A second theory, espoused by Frances Stewart, focuses on the role of horizontal inequalities. The third theory, identified with William Zartman, highlights the different roles “need, creed and greed” factors play in various phases of a conflict. And the fourth theory, associated with the World Bank /World Development Report 2011, points out “commitment” problems leading to institutional failures as a crucial factor. Each of the theories leads to quite different policy conclusions. Their strengths and weaknesses, and their claimed empirical support, are discussed.In addition, some of the mechanisms underpinning the theories are highlighted on the basis of empirical data. In particular, the central role of horizontal inequalities between social groups is discussed.

Lawyers in the Third World : comparative and developmental perspectives

Medarbetare: Dias, Clarence J. | Luckham, R. | Lynch, D. O. | Paul, J. C. N.
Utgivare: Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 1981
Ämnesord: Africa, Developing countries, Lawyers, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
The underlying reason for this book is a concern about the social impact of legal professions on "development" and "underdevelopment" and on the capacity of the mass of people in the countries studied (who are poor by any standards) to use law to better their social condition. Part of the book is a collection of empirical and historical studies of lawyers in various Third World countries. These studies offer data and insights of value to legal and other scholars of the countries and regions examined; material for historians of colonial societies; contributions to theories of professionalism and the sociology of occupational groups, evidence to support theories which link characteristics of legal professions with characteristics of the political economy within which they exist. An overview essay discusses different paradigms which have influenced thinking about development and the significance of lawyers in it, and different approaches which may affect the study and evaluation of legal professions. The country studies come next. The concluding chapters set out some generalizations about social factors which have influenced the history and character of Third World professions and the social impact of professions, notably on the rural poor. Generally, the case studies suggest that legal professions contribute to the kind of highly skewed distribution of wealth and power now characteristic of many Third World polities. A final chapter explores the implications of these findings for alternative approaches to development.

Environment, climate and the Sudanese conflicts

Upphovspersoner: Sörbö, Gunnar | Kunda Komey, Guma
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala, Sweden
År: 2012
First seminar in the series 'Sudan: North in the shadow of the South'. Filmed 29 March 2012. 46 min. long. Climate change and environmental factors are often dismissed as causes of conflict. The session will dig deeper into the environmental root causes of conflict in Sudan and provide views on the issue from a civil society perspective.Speakers: Dr. Gunnar Sørbø (Christian Michelsen Institute) and Dr. Guma Kunda Komey (Senior Researcher, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg).

Privatising services as if people matter : Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria

Upphovsperson: Onyanta, Adama
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics | Uppsala, Sweden
År: 2012
There is an overwhelming focus on the state and the private sector in the language and practice of privatisation, even though it calls for a tripartite arrangement that includes the people. A major consequence is the failure to comprehend and assess fully the important role of the people. While the people have a major part in supporting privatisation through payment of user charges, they are not often seen as key partners by city governments in Africa. Public participation has important implications for finance and cost recovery. Thus a people-centred approach to privatisation in which the users of services are consulted and involved in decision-making processes is crucial to the emergence of sustainable solid waste management systems in African cities. This study provides useful insights into the complexity of public participation in the context of privatisation of solid waste services and offers policy guidelines relevant to the major stakeholders.

Imagining a peaceful society : a vision of children's literature in a post-conflict Zimbabwe

Upphovsperson: Chitando, Anna
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2008
Ämnesord: conflicts, Political crisis, peace, literature, Authors, children, Social change, Dispute settlement, Peaceful coexistence, Post-conflict reconstruction, Zimbabwe, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
Imagining a Peaceful Society: A Vision of Children's Literature in a Post-Conflict Zimbabwe addresses the marginalisation of children's literature from the discourse on conflict and peace building in Africa. By presenting a unique perspective to how writers of children's literature, and children themselves understand, grapple with, and envision peace in a post-conflict Zimbabwean society, this Discussion Paper calls attention to the immense, but largely untapped potential of literature as a critical resource for the promotion peace in Africa.