Political science

Small states in an unstable region : Rwanda and Burundi, 1999-2000

Upphovsperson: Reyntjens, Filip
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2000
Ämnesord: Burundi, Rwanda, central Africa, Conflicts, Conflict resolution, Government policy, Political science, Statsvetenskap
"Small States in an Unstable Region - Rwanda and Burundi 1999-2000" is the second overview by Filip Reyntjens on present development sin Rwanda and Burundi. The first one "Talking or Fighting?" (published 1999) covered the period 1998-1999. In the new publication questions such as governance and institutions, human rights, justice, civil wars, opposition and political dialogue in Rwanda and Burundi are investigated as well as how the regional situation, resulting from the ongoing war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, has a serious destabilizing effect on the internal situation in both countries.

AU, NEPAD and the APRM : democratisation efforts explored

Upphovspersoner: Fombad, Charles Manga | Kebonang, Zein | Melber, Henning
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2006
Ämnesord: Institutional framework, African organizations, African Union, NEPAD, Democratization, Governance, Government policy, Development strategy, Legal aspects, Political science, Statsvetenskap
The African Union (AU) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) represent an unprecedented collective political effort by African governments at the beginning of the 21st century to address issues of democracy and good governance on a continental scale within an emerging framework of institutions and instruments designed to assist in this effort. The visible commitments to jointly tackle political and socioeconomic challenges in order to overcome the structural legacies that hamper national and social development are reflected in the adoption of a variety of programmatic blueprints and a series of newly created or recently strengthened institutions. The most visible of these since the integration of NEPAD into the AU is the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), a process- aimed at addressing some of the challenges on the basis of a voluntary assessment of African government policies. The contributions to this publication trace these recent developments from a policy perspective and explore the scope and limitations of current democratisation efforts. Going beyond the rhetoric surrounding the emergence of the new initiatives, the authors provide an interim and realistic prognosis of the prospects for these new dynamics to achieve the declared goals of sustainable and meaningful change.

War and peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Upphovsperson: Weiss, Herbert F.
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2000
Ämnesord: Congo DR, Zaire, Central Africa, War, Conflict Resolution, Peace Agreement, History, Post war, Political science, Statsvetenskap
A report on the last years' events in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which have transformed the country into an arena of international and internal violence and conflict involving so many participants that it can be described as the first African continental war. The study also contains a historical background to the recent events in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Guerrilla government : political changes in the southern Sudan during the 1990s

Upphovsperson: Rolandsen, Øystein H.
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2005
Ämnesord: Sudan, southern Sudan, sudan people´s liberation, movement, army, government, Civil war, conventions, political development, political reform, Political science, Statsvetenskap
Although it suffered a serious setback when, in 1991, three senior commanders tried to wrestle control from its leader, John Garang, the SPLM/A has remained the main rebel organisation in the southern Sudan since the start of the second civil war in 1983. At a national level the SPLM/As influence over political development in the south has been matched only by the government in Khartoum and its armed forces, and at a local level only by chiefs, who derive their power from the old system of indirect rule, established by the British during the colonial period. An understanding of the changes and processes within the SPLM/A is, therefore, essential to an analysis of the Sudans contemporary history and current events, which includes continuing peace negotiations, and the planning of post-war southern Sudan. This volume analyses the main events leading up to the SPLM/As current position of supremacy and follows the process of internal reform that has brought about a nascent state structure amidst a devastating civil war and continuous humanitarian crisis.The book consists of three chronologically ordered, integrated parts, where the first part discusses the effect of the split in 1991 and the movements political and administrative structures prior to its National Convention in 1994. The activities of southern rebels, traditional structures and humanitarian agencies are described, and the study shows how the interaction between these institutions constituted a unique political system.The 1994 Convention is discussed in the second part. The Convention was, and to some extent still is, regarded by most members of the SPLM/A as one of the Movement’s greatest achievements. Here the processes leading up to the National Convention is recaptured; preparations and the event itself are discussed thoroughly.Finally, the book analyses the significance of the Convention and its reforms in the light of later attempts at implementation when, in the last part of the 1990s, political paralysis set in as the Movement experienced unprecedented military success. The discussion is brought to a conclusion with a brief summary of events during the period 2000–2004 and presents some thoughts on the future government of the south Sudan. Guerrilla Government is of interest to academics, humanitarian workers and diplomats concerned with the Sudan’s contemporary history, civil wars and humanitarian operations in a war-zone. The book contributes towards documenting the experience of the southern Sudanese and the pretext for the current peace process, and provides ample case material for students of insurgencies and internal conflicts. Explaining the political and military background to today’s complex situation in the South, Guerrilla Government should be studied by everyone who wishes to contribute to the rebuilding of a war-torn Sudan.

Zimbabwe's presidential elections 2002 : evidence, lessons and implications

Upphovsperson: Melber, Henning
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2002
Ämnesord: elections, political development, Zimbabwe, Political science, Statsvetenskap
The Presidential Elections that took place from March 9 to 11, 2002 in Zimbabwe provoked enormous internal and international controversies. The impact of the politically contested continued presidency of Robert Mugabe, head of state and leader of the government under ZANU-PF since Zimbabwe's Independence in 1980, for the country, the region and the continent might be far reaching. The consequences are not yet fully apparent, but the current debates also centre around the case of Zimbabwe as a litmus test for the notion of "good governance" and democracy as perceived and acknowledged by other African leaders especially in the context of the "New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD). The contributions to this Discussion Paper offer critical and political comments from scholars mainly in or from the Southern African region, who have been closely involved with regional and Zimbabwean issues.

Governance and state delivery in Southern Africa : examples from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe

Upphovsperson: Melber, Henning
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2007
Ämnesord: political development, Democratization, Political power, Governance, Political culture, Post-independence, Southern Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Political science, Statsvetenskap
This Discussion Paper highlights in complementary ways problems and challenges for governance issues under centralised state agencies, which base their authority and legitimacy on a dominant party and its influence. The case study on Namibia argues for a need for parliamentary and administrative reform to improve the efficiency of lawmakers. The Botswana chapter explores the decision on the location of the country’s second university as an act without consultation of the local population. The Zimbabwe paper advocates an approach in favour of using the African Peer Review Mechanism as an instrument to assist in a change towards better governance. All the authors have intimate knowledge of the matters discussed through their own involvement with the respective cases and/or their individual positioning within these societies. This publication is among the final results of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was undertaken at the Institute between 2001 and 2006.

Political cultures in democratic South Africa

Upphovspersoner: Neocosmos, Michael | Suttner, Raymond | Taylor, Ian | Melber, Henning
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2002
Ämnesord: Democratisation, Human rights, Liberation, Nation Building, Reconciliation, ANC, South Africa, Southern Africa, Political science, Statsvetenskap
The democratic transition in South Africa that emerged during the 1990s and became manifest in a democratically elected government, has not yet brought to completion the post-Apartheid social and political transformation of that country. In fact, it has far from consolidated a new socio-political culture. The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon different but related aspects of South African democracy after Apartheid as represented in a variety of social forces, institutions and individuals. They illustrate that societies in transition have to make sustained efforts to overcome the legacies of the past, and that the present reproduces some of the past structural constraints and patterns of power and control in the new framework. This publication has been compiled under the aegis of the research network on “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSa), currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. The contributions were originally presented to a workshop organised in Cape Town in December 2001.

Talking or fighting? : political evolution in Rwanda and Burundi, 1998-1999

Upphovsperson: Reyntjens, Filip
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 1999
Ämnesord: Burundi, Rwanda, Central Africa, Conflicts, Conflict resolution, Government Policy, Political science, Statsvetenskap
Just like in 1997, there is a great deal of continuity in the political revolution of Rwanda and Burundi, but its regional impact is felt even more, especially in the case of Rwanda. Although the civil war is still ravaging the country, in Burundi the search for a political solution is moving at a snail's pace, through the dual process of political partnership within the country and the Arusha negotiations. On the other hand, the regime in Rwanda continues to favour the military option, which, moreover, has met with some success following the second intervention in the Congo and the regroupment of an important section of the population in the Northwest. While, in Burundi, the political landscape remains divided and even fragmented, in Rwanda the RPF has reinforced its grasp on a tightly-controlled system, notably through the destruction of the MDR. Cohesion within the RPF, however, is by no means guaranteed. At the political level, the system in Burundi is undoubtedly more inclusive than that of the Rwandan regime, whose base continues to shrink. While Rwanda has opted for the path of almost absolute control, Burundi continues its quest for political solutions, although the process is fragile and success is far from guaranteed. In August 1998, Rwanda reaffirmed its ambitions as a regional military power. Furthermore, even more than in 1996-1997, the Congolese operation opens up access to resources which not only help finance the war, but also enrich some political and military actors in Kigali. Although the Burundian army has also become involved in the Congo, its ambitions seem more limited. Furthermore, the regional alliances have become clearer and more visible, which does not necessarily mean that they are stable.