African Union

Strategic Options for the Future of African Peace Operations 2015-2025 : Seminar Report

Upphovspersoner: Gelot, Linnéa | Karlsrud, John | de Coning, Cedric
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation | Oslo : Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
År: 2015
Ämnesord: African peace operations, strategic relationships, mission support, multidimensional missions, African Union, United Nations, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
An African model of peace operationsIncreasingly complex security environments are placing high demandson African peace operations, and complicating efforts at long-termpeace- and statebuilding. From the experiences of the African Union(AU) and the sub-regions over the last decade, an African model ofpeace operations has emerged that is at odds with the missionscenarios and multi-dimensional assumptions that underpinned theoriginal framework of the African Standby Force (ASF).

Options Stratégiques pour l'Avenir des Opérations de Paix Africaines 2015-2025 : Rapport de Séminaire

Medarbetare: Gelot, Linnéa | Karlsrud, John | de Coning, Cedric
Utgivare: NUPI:Oslo : Institut Norvégien des Affaires Internationales
År: 2015
Ämnesord: African peace operations, strategic relationships, mission support, multidimensional missions, African Union, United Nations, Opérations de paix africaines
La complexité grandissante des environnements sécuritaires impose unhaut niveau d’exigences vis-à-vis des opérations de paix africaines etcomplique les efforts de long terme pour la consolidation de la paix etle renforcement de l’État. Les expériences de l'Union africaine (UA) etdes sous-régions au cours de la dernière décennie montrent qu’unmodèle africain des opérations de paix a émergé, qui est en contradictionavec les scénarios et les hypothèses multidimensionnelles demission qui sous-tendaient originellement le cadre de la Force africaineen attente (FAA).

Nigeria and the African Union in Light of the Arab Revolts

Upphovsperson: Okereke, C. Nna-Emeka
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation |
År: 2013
Ämnesord: African Union, Afrocentrism, Foreign policy, National Interest, national security, Pax-Nigeriana
This paper analyses Nigeria’s role in the African Union (AU) and con-cludes that the latter is a strategic platform for the conduct of Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives in Africa. The study finds that the country has a ‘manifest destiny’ to play leadership roles in Africa and debunks the perception that Nigeria’s role in the AU is in decline. The paper further explores Nigeria’s AU priorities since the Arab revolts and concludes that the country’s ability to steer a clear course at the AU holds out pro-spects for peace, stability and security in Africa.

The African Union in Light of the Arab Revolts : An appraisal of the foreign policy and security objectives of South Africa, Ethiopia and Algeria

Medarbetare: Gelot, Linnea | Eriksson, Mikael
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; The Swedish Defence Research Agency
År: 2013
Ämnesord: African Union, Regional cooperatio, n Foreign policy, Foreign relations, International politics, Regional security, Algeria, Ethiopia, South Africa
The fall of authoritarian regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya has changed political dynamics on the African continent. One immediate concern has been the implications of these developments for the African Union (AU) and its member states. Would overall political dynamics in the AU be changed? Would the most powerful member states use the altered circumstances to enhance their influence on AU policies andframeworks? What would the impact be for the AU's overall authority? In this Discussion Paper series, three edited papers are presented that tackle AU political and institutional dynamics in light of the Arab revolts. A particular puzzle addressed is the current postures of South Africa,Ethiopia and Algeria within the AU. A separate analysis of Nigeria's role was published earlier in the NAI-FOI Lecture Series on African Security. The work in this discussion series reflects the longstanding collaboration between the Swedish Defence Research Agency's Project Studies in African Security and the Nordic Africa Institute to build Africa-related research capacity on peace and security.

Building the African Union : An assessment of past progress and future prospects for the African Union’s institutional architecture

Medarbetare: Laporte, Geert | Mackie, James
Utgivare: Maastricht, The Netherlands : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; European Centre for Development Policy Management
År: 2010
Ämnesord: African Union, African organizations, Institutional framework, Institution building, Capacity building, regional integration, Partnership, European Union, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP

The African Union and the challenges of implementing the “responsibility to protect”

Upphovsperson: Kuwali, Daniel
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: United Nations, African Union, Regional security, African organizations, Regional cooperation, International relations, Foreign intervention, Dispute settlement, Peacekeeping, Defence policy, Crime prevention, Human rights, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
The concept of the “responsibility to protect” (“R2P”) was endorsed by the world’s leaders sitting at the 2005 World Summit level in the UN General Assembly. The World Summit Outcome Document affirmed that every sovereign government has a responsibility to protect its citizens and those within its jurisdiction from genocide, war crimes, “ethnic cleansing” and crimes against humanity (UN 2005 paras. 138–139). The concept of R2P is cast in the three core pillars: first, an affirmation of the primary and continuing obligation of individual states to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity, as well as incitement thereof; second, a commitment by the international community to assist states in meeting these obligations; and third, acceptance by UN member states of their responsibility to respond in a timely and decisive manner through the UN Security Council, if national authorities are manifestly failing to protect their populations from these mass atrocity crimes. R2P is a restatement of positive binding obligations of states to protect their citizens from mass atrocity crimes; and the collective responsibility to the international community to prevent mass atrocity crimes. R2P is about taking effective action at the earliest possible stage (Evans 2008). These obligations are particularly relevant to Africa in the face of crises such as those in Sudan (Darfur), parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Somalia. It is, however, rather early to pass definitive judgement on the relatively young notion of R2P without addressing some of the challenges confronting its implementation in Africa.

Persuasive prevention : Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union

Upphovsperson: Kuwali, Dan
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: African Union, United Nations, African organizations, Regional cooperation, International relations, Foreign intervention, Dispute settlement, Peacekeeping, Defence policy, Crime prevention, Human rights, Regional security, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

Participation of the Diaspora in the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership

Upphovsperson: Mohamoud, Awil
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: International relations, International cooperation, Partnership, North south relations, Development programmes, African Union, European Union, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
The Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership and Action Plan was adopted in Lisbon in 2007. This new strategy, which is often referred to as a ‘people-centred partnership’, was launched with the purpose of scaling-up political dialogue between the African Union (AU) and the EU in the interests of building a solid and sustainable continent-to-continent partnership. It aims to reinvigorate and elevate cooperation between Africa and Europe in the fight against poverty, injustice, human rights violations, lawlessness, insecurity and political and social instability. The priorities of the partnership programme are organised around eight themes: peace and security; democratic governance and human rights; trade, regional integration and infrastructure; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); energy; climate change; migration, mobility and employment; and science, information society and space. The programme stipulates that Africa and the EU will pursue and implement policies and programmes that facilitate the active involvement of diaspora communities in the implementation of the strategy.

Mano river basin area : formal and informal security providers in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone

Upphovspersoner: Jörgel, Magnus | Utas, Mats
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation | Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics | Stockholm : Defence analysis, Swedish defence research agency (FOI)
År: 2007
Ämnesord: West Africa, Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Mano River, ECOWAS, African Union, Security sector reform, Informal sector, Regional security, Peacekeeping, Development strategy, Peace and conflict research, Freds- och konfliktforskning

The new African initiative and the African Union : a preliminary assessment and documentation

Upphovsperson: Melber, Henning
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2001
Ämnesord: political development, African Union, SOCIAL SCIENCES, SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP
During the year 2000 an initiative among the African states to transform the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU) gained momentum. It resulted in the ratification of the Constitutive Act and its adoption at the 36th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Lusaka. Parallel to this process of reorganisation towards closer inter-state collaboration on the African continent in the spirit of Pan Africanism emerged the systematic effort to redefine developmental priorities and to claim a new common position of African states in the globalised world. The "African Renaissance" initiative of South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki resulted in a "Millenium Africa Recovery Programme", which was finally revised and presented as the "New Africa Initiative" (NAI). Adopted at the same OAU Summit in Lusaka in July 2001, the NAI serves as a blueprint for Africa's development strategy at the beginning of the 21st century. It was presented to the G8 summit in Genoa, where the leaders of the world's powerful countries decided on a follow up by appointing individual special advisers to explore support to the NAI and future collaboration on the basis of this document. This paper offers a preliminary assessment of the New Africa Initiative within the context of the transformation of the OAU into the AU. It identifies and summarises essential new aspects advocated, critically examines the degree of realism and points at the possible limitations. The analysis also considers first reactions to the initiatives and reflects on the perspectives.