Science, ideology and development : three essays on development theory

Upphovsperson: Mafeje, Archie
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 1978
Ämnesord: Africa, Economics, Development theory, Agricultural economy, Capitalism, Economic systems, Economic growth, Development, Business and economics, Ekonomi
In these essays the author starts from two basic assumptions. First, he believes that science is as social and as subject to perversion as all other forms of knowledge in society. This being the case, there is no absolute way of separating science from the pervading ideologies of the day. In development theory it is only logical that the socially desirable goals should be strated before the instruments for realising them can be forged. But in the process of forging instruments for solving current problems new truths are often revealed which become subversive of the prevailing set-up. Nor should this be surprising in Professor Mafeje's view, for it is implicit in the concept of "critique" in Marxian dialects. According to the latter, there is no affirmation without a negation. "Development" as an evocative and affirmative concept can scarcely avoid the connotation of "destruction" of existing structures and theories. For those who are dissatisfied with orthodox theory, there is a great deal to recommend in these essays.

Why is agriculture so important to reducing poverty?

Upphovsperson: Hårsmar, Mats
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2010
Ämnesord: Agricultural sector, Agricultural economy, Poverty alleviation, Economic growth, Development theory, Africa South of Sahara, Asia, Business and economics, Ekonomi
Over the last few years, there has been both talk about and action regarding the long-term neglect of agriculture in development. An agricultural revival has occurred, with African governments committing themselves to spending at least 10 per cent of their budgets on agriculture. Donors such as the World Bank and many bilateral organizations are refocusing on the sector. This is partly due to the prevalence of rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa as well as in South Asia. Despite this, the debate on the appropriate role of agriculture in economic growth lingers on among academics and policymakers. In particular, agriculture’s contribution to broader economic growth is questioned. Should growth be driven by agriculture or by something else? Recent empirical studies and earlier theoretical work demonstrate that growth in the agricultural sector has contributed more to poverty reduction than growth in non-agricultural sectors. This paper discusses this issue and highlights some of the preconditions for the achievement of this outcome.

Creating a Conducive International Environment for Africa’s Development : China’s role in Global Governance Reform!

Upphovsperson: Cheru, Fantu
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2010
Ämnesord: Africa, India, international economic relations, South-south relations, Globalization, Governance, democracy, Social justice, Development theory, Business and economics, Ekonomi
The world is at a critical juncture: there is the opportunity to come together to pursue a common agenda, or it can break into opposing groups based on differences in income, interests, religion or race. Globalisation exacerbates this tension between opportunity and threats. The most keenly felt tension is the sense that globalisation creates greater inequality in an already unequal world. If the world is unequal, then it must be undemocratic as well. As a result, globalisation and democracy come togetheras simultaneous challenges. As far as Africa is concerned, the challenge is how to gain voice in global governance.

India, Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum: A Bridge between Three Continents : Challenges, achievements and policy options

Upphovsperson: Arkhangelskaya, Alexandra A.
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2010
Ämnesord: South-south relations, International cooperation, Partnership, Institutional framework, India-Brazil-South Africa, Dialogue Forum, Business and economics, Ekonomi
The India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum is a trilateral development initiative to promote South-South cooperation and exchange. The forum was launched with the adoptionof the Brasília Declaration in June 2003. Each of the three countries has ambitions to play a leading role in regional and global affairs. The role of the Group of Twenty (G20) in respondingto the global financial crisis reflects growing acceptance of IBSA’s emerging position by the world’s established powers. An analysis of IBSA as a rising global power bloc is therefore critical to understanding the new dimensions of South-South relations, particularly in a post-Cold War world. This policy note addresses IBSA’s framework, principles, achievements and challenges in Africa’s development perspective.

The impact of common agricultural policy (CAP) reform on Africa-EU trade in food and agricultural products

Upphovsperson: Goodison, Paul
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: Agricultural policy, Agricultural products, Trade policy, Foreign trade, Agrarian reform, Economic implications, Africa, European Union, Business and economics, Ekonomi
This paper seeks to look at certain fundamental features of the EU food and agricultural sector adjustment process as it manifests itself through the reform of the CAP. It highlights the shift in policy tools, from price support for agricultural products to income support for EU farmers and the shift in policy emphasis from the quantity of agricultural products to the quality of food and agriculturalproducts. It reviews the implications of this policy shift for the EU’s diminishing tolerance of the use of trade policy tools as part of agricultural development policies in third countries. It highlights in passing the implications of these developments for the African food and agriculturalsectors, before drawing out some broad conclusions and recommendations.

The Starbucks/Ethiopian coffee saga : geographical indications as a linchpin for development in developing countries

Upphovspersoner: Watson, James | Streatfeild, Jeremy
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2008
Ämnesord: Coffee, Property rights, Trademarks, international trade, Exports, economic development, Geographical aspects, Business and economics, Ekonomi
A coalition of Ethiopian coffee producers and the Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) set up a programme to acquire trademarks in important export markets, with a view to increasing the profits on these brands for the producers. In March 2005, the Ethiopian government filed its first US trademark applications for three contested coffee names. After 15 months the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) agreed that the name Sidamo was generic and therefore could not be trademarked. This led to an outcry by some commentators, including NGOs and Intellectual Property Rights professionals. Yet, the arguments in favour of protecting indigenous knowledge under international trade rules as a linchpin for economic development and poverty eradication has been forcefully put forward by African countries and other developing countries in both regional trade negotiations and at the World Trade Organization. With the Ethiopian and Starbucks dispute in mind, James Watson and Jeremy Streatfeild eloquently explain in this piece how geographical indications can be used to enhance the capacity of farmers and economic development in Africa and other least developed countries.

More Tax, Better Governments

Upphovsperson: Hårsmar, Mats
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2010
Ämnesord: Taxation, Tax systems, Tax reform, Tax revenues, Fiscal administration, Governance, Foreign aid, Aid dependency, Business and economics, Ekonomi
It has been argued that aid donors should focus more on supporting low-income countries to broaden their tax base and raise overall taxation. Besides increasing revenue, this has also a political objective. When citizens are taxed without excessive coercion, taxation can contribute considerably to improved governance and accountability, and to state building. Due to the effects of the financial crisis, calls for increased mobilisation of domestic resources are now being renewed. But is broadened taxation a viable strategy? Some signs of progress are visible in sub-Saharan Africa. However, governments and donors need to see taxation as part of the broader framework of social contracts and not to lose sight of the bigger picture.

Effects of Rules of Origin on the European Union - Africa Economic Partnership Agreements : summary of issues

Upphovsperson: Rios-Herran, Roberto
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2007
Ämnesord: European Union, International negotiations, Economic agreements, Trade agreements, international trade, Business and economics, Ekonomi
Rules of Origin (ROO) determine the economic nationality of an imported product. Where margins of trade preferences are higher, ROO tend to be very restrictive and even sometimes dilutes the benefits of such preferences. As the ACP-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations enter a critical phase, the devil of the agreement will be in the detail of the impending EPAs ROO. According to the original mandate, EPA is supposed to be concluded by December 2007 and should be development friendly. Yet, the recent EC ROO offer to the ACP countries (Commission Staff Working Document Concerning the Definition of “Originating Products and Methods of Administrative Cooperation”) are seen by commentators as completely undermining the development dimension of EPA. Bearing in mind the current EPA negotiations, Roberto Rios explains how ROO impact the pattern of trade between countries and how they can be development friendly.

The proliferation of anti-dumping and poor governance in emerging economies: case studies of China and South Africa

Upphovsperson: Gao, Xuan
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: Foreign trade, Trade policy, dumping, unfair competition, trade barriers, Trade agreements, Governance, Trade liberalization, China, South Africa, Business and economics, Ekonomi
Through examination of the alleged rationale of the anti-dumping (AD) instrument, this paper argues that it has little to do with fairness or with level playing fields. AD trade protection enjoys broad political support merely because its convoluted technical complexities prevent all but a few insiders and experts from understanding the reality that underlies the rhetoric, thus enabling inefficient but well-organised domestic producers to safely utilise the instrument to protect themselves from foreign competition, at times in collusion with foreign exporters and with the national AD authorities as a broker. While the best option for AD reform, i.e., complete removal, is not practically available, this paper proposes improving AD’s procedural institutions by enhancing the quality of public governance in the formulation of AD decisions by national authorities. It further examines the AD practices and laws of China and South Africa, arguing that poor governance in emerging economies contributes to their prolific use of AD, usually disproportionate to their small share of world imports. These economies already maintain higher tariff barriers than industrial countries, so that without effective steps to ensure better governance to restrain the arbitrary and proliferating use of AD, they may lose out significantly on the gains from the trade liberalisation for which they have been striving for decades. CONTENTS Foreword 1. Introduction 2. Anti-dumping: Rhetoric vs. Reality 2.1 The Rehtoric of AD: To Ensure Level Playing Fields by Offsetting Unfair Competition 2.1.1 The Economic Rationale of Free Trade and Competition 2.1.2 AD: A Competition-Distorting and Protectionist Instrument 2.2 AD: Misundertanding, Ignorance and Indifference 2.2.1 Collaboration between Special Interest Groups and Decision Makers 3. Harnessing Anti-Dumping: A Good Governance Approach 3.1 Good Governance in AD Decision Making 3.2 The Prolific Use of AD by Emerging Economies and the Low Quality of Governance 3.2.1 AD Desicion Making in China 3.2.2 AD Decision Formulation in South Africa 4. Conclusions References    

Examining the South Africa–China agricultural trading relationship

Upphovspersoner: Sandrey, Ron | Edinger, Hannah
Utgivare: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration | Uppsala : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet
År: 2009
Ämnesord: Foreign trade, Economic relations, agricultural trade, Trade agreements, export earnings, Access to markets, comparative analysis, China, South Africa, Business and economics, Ekonomi
In recent years, Africa has emerged as a dominant region in China’s foreign policy. As an emerging center of economic growth in the world economy, China is striving towards establishing a stronger footprint in Africa than ever before. The need to understand this rapprochement has been exacerbated by the current financial crisis.With focus on agricultural trade, this book uses empirical data spanning up to year end 2007 to explain the potential benefits of China growing trade in Africa on South Africa’s economy. The studies cover both China and South Africa’s positions as importer and exporter of agricultural products in each other’s markets. In doing so, they have carefully analyzed data from Chinese and South African sources. In order to give a fresh perspective to the analyses, a section of the work has been devoted to the nature of non-tariff barriers that face South Africa’s exporters into the Chinese market.